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Which country is this?

The camera of Jorge Bodanzky during Brazil's military dictatorship (1964-1985)

Exhibition texts

Institutional text

A camera for revealing the Brazil hidden by the dictatorship

Jorge Bodanzky’s cinema has always revealed and interrogated a Brazil hidden behind its official images. The liberating condition of his films redefines, in equal measure, forms of producing, directing, and editing, confronting the limits of cinema through the presentation and representation of lives that appear in it, subverting the conventions and languages of genres such as documentary or fiction. All of his films testify to an understanding that while a life can be a film, a film can never be a life. Freedom to film is an inviolable condition in defense of the right to live, and for this reason Bodanzky’s camera registers, exposes, surprises and invites critical reflection, reconfiguring all of the certainties that may exist about cinema and life which viewers bring with them when they come into contact with one of his films.

Bodanzky’s films embody the filmmaker’s form of action in time and on the territory he chooses to film. His camera is not neutral, it creates situations in relation to the contexts it registers, invents, edits and presents. His cinema is not an imitation of life, nor does it intend to present life as it is in an ultimately illusory objectivity. Bodanzky’s camera is active and, as such, each film affirms its own independent truth, and as such is just as subjective as it is determined by its choices, free from the ideological draw of the mission known conventionally as cinéma verité, yet of which it also reveals itself to be entirely conscious.

The Brazil imposed by the military dictatorship is confronted, exposed, denounced and fought with courage by Jorge Bodanzky’s cinema. What Country Is This? is an exhibition that brings together fragments of films, photographs and documents which express an impressive chapter of resistance and subversion of the norms imposed by the dictatorship and its modes of representing the country. Presenting this exhibition in 2024, 60 years after the 1964 military coup, allows for a reconsideration of this history based on the intersection of memories, images and documents resulting from a body of cinematic work which is highly relevant to the understanding of this historical period. Instituto Moreira Salles, whose archives preserve valuable funds for a reinterpretation of Brazilian history, also marks the passage of these 60 years with this exhibition. This is also the first time the collection of photographs, documents and films by Jorge Bodanzky, stored and preserved by the IMS, has been shared.

We declare our immense gratitude to Jorge Bodanzky for embracing this project so warmly, and for his cooperative and enthusiastic collaboration. We also express considerable appreciation to Thyago Nogueira as curator of the exhibition, Horrana de Kássia Santoz, as curatorial assistant, Ângelo Manjabosco and Mariana Baumgaertner, for the research, in addition to all of the people and teams at IMS who have made this project possible. Throughout its duration the exhibition will be accompanied by a broad ranging retrospective of Jorge Bodanzky’s cinematographic work. Likewise, we also extend acknowledgements to the IMS Cinema programming team, and to the Cinemateca Brasileira, for all the support they have provided.


Instituto Moreira Salles

Curatorial text

The fight goes on

This exhibition brings together for the first time the work of photographer, reporter and filmmaker Jorge Bodanzky (São Paulo, 1942) produced during the Brazilian military dictatorship (1964-1985). While Brazil had fallen under the shadow of authoritarianism, a young student set out from the newly opened University of Brasília to document the social conflict and cultural diversity of the country with his camera. Evading repression and censorship, Bodanzky established himself as one of the sharpest and most critical filmmakers of his generation.

How could one narrate in images the rights violations and environmental destruction that the developmental jingoism of the military government sought to keep invisible? How was it possible to capture in living color the community-based alliance of social movements and the greatness of popular culture that cradled the resistance? Films such as Iracema: uma transa amazônica (1974), censored until 1981, Gitirana (1975) and Jari (1979) invented a new approach to making cinema, with concise scripts, improvised acting, portable equipment and direct audio recording. Fiction and roleplay were often used to expose real contradictions in society. A streamlined production was an essential strategy in constructing a counterimage that opposed official discourse.

While urban struggles were well documented, Bodanzky and partners such as Wolf Gauer, Hermano Penna, Orlando Senna and Helena Salem scoured the country seeking to amplify voices and images that until then had remained out of sight. Traveling to Amazônia, the Northeast and the South of Brazil, his work focused on social injustice and the paradoxes of the authoritarian economic model, while also pointing to the role of ecology and education in the transformation of Brazil.

Bodanzky was making cinema even when he took photographs through a car window, in a plane or helicopter, framing the world in movement. Throughout his 21 year career, he has worked as a photographer for magazines and newspapers, directed photography for classics of independent cinema, recorded reports across Latin America and experimented with super-8 films.

In the center of the room, four projections present scenes from his films organized along thematic lines, such as labor exploitation, varied forms of religiosity, struggles of resistance and the distinct voices of progress. On the walls, photographs and super-8 projections make up the filmmaker’s field notebook. Television monitors display interviews and films made for German channels, while the recessed room focuses on his collaborations as director of photography.

Much of this production is still poorly known, be it due to censorship, lack of funding, or the limited exhibition circuit for activist cinema. Viewed together these works reveal the crucial role images play in the fight for social justice and in understanding a country raised on violent and authoritarian foundations. Revisiting them provides a chance to witness history being written as it happened, while also recognising that many of these conflicts and paradoxes remain alive in Brazil today.


Thyago Nogueira, curator and coordinator of the Contemporary Photography area at IMS.


Some of the audiovisual projections contain scenes of nudity and violence.
See recommended ratings.
Watch the film show at the IMS Paulista cinema.

1: Labor exploitation

Labor exploitation

Iracema: uma transa amazônica (1974), Jorge Bodanzky’s best known film, combines fiction and documentary to narrate a story of love and heartbreak between a young indigenous woman forced into prostitution, and a trucker from the South of the country who sees in the construction of the Transamazonian Highway an easy shot at making dirty money. The prostitution of minors, slavery of rural workers and violence against indigenous peoples are among the themes raised in the film through the original interaction of professional actors, amateurs and passersby – an approach which still provokes discomfort and commotion today. To escape the attention of army officers, the film crew would park their van, improvise a scene and take off. There were no second takes. The film was an affront to the official image of Brazil and remained censored until 1981, despite international success.

The impact of the grandiose projects undertaken by the military government and the private sector were also brought to light in the fictional feature film Gitirana (1975, censored) and the documentary Jari (1979). Gitirana narrates the misadventures of a man-woman worker in search of an enchanted world against the backdrop of the construction of an enormous dam at Sobradinho (Bahia), which led to the expulsion of thousands of residents from the region. Jari exposed the environmental destruction and degrading working conditions in the factories of American businessman Daniel Ludwig, located in the Amazon.

In Iracema (1974), Gitirana (1975) and Os Mucker (1978), Bodanzky made use of allegory and roleplay to approach reality indirectly and evade censors. His films were only possible with German funding as they were not of interest to the Brazilian government. Jari (1979), Terceiro milênio (Third Millennium, 1980) and Igreja dos oprimidos (Church of the Oppressed, 1985), were made as the country edged towards redemocratization, and poked at the wound without mincing words. The way that real and fictional characters celebrate violence and ignorance echoes sad episodes from recent times in Brazil.

2: Struggle and resistance

Struggle and resistance

“Stone doesn’t block the path, fire doesn’t burn the moonlight”, sing a pair of rural workers in Igreja dos oprimidos (1985), made in the year of redemocratization. The film speaks of rural violence and the action of the Progressive Catholic Church in the fight for land reform in Conceição do Araguaia (Pará). In Bodanzky’s cinema, popular music takes the form of a chorus that comments on social and moral issues. While the dictatorship crumbled in the cities, the interior of the country continued to fight for land and rights through alliances and community associations.

Bodanzky focused on other forms of social resistance during the dictatorship. In the fiction feature Os Mucker (1978), based on a true historical episode, a German community led by messianic couple Jacobina and José Maurer resist the attacks from local society, in a gaucho reenactment of the War of Canudos. The feature film Gitirana (1975), adopted the form of a cordel story, translating the meaning of cangaço into the northeastern and female resistance during the construction of the Sobradinho dam (Bahia) under the government of General Emílio Médici.

The fight against machismo and puritanism is embodied by women like Jacobina in Os Mucker (accused of “sleeping with anyone”); Marieta Puribão in Gitirana (who lies with the Devil to absolve sin); and in the razor that seals Iracema's alliance with Tereza, in Iracema.

Rural workers, the labor movement and feminists fight for justice and emancipation, even when new social and moral values present an affront to a society which responds with the sword of repression. The indiscriminate violence of state and private power is a strategy of domination which promotes conflict even among oppressed groups.

In his own way, Bodanzky provided images for a collective struggle, helping to put the brakes on the project of extermination that developmental jingoism sought to keep hidden. The repressive military system is replaced by the violence of private militias, determined to prevent rural land reform and the distribution of wealth from advancing in the country, reminding us of Dom Alano Pena in Igreja dos oprimidos (1985). The story goes on today.

3: Religion and spirituality

Religion and spirituality

Religion often embraces and redeems, offering support and comfort from the horrors of repression. In the medium-length feature Caminhos de Valderez (1971), Bodanzky’s debut as director, a middle class woman is tormented by demons and by the dictatorship while seeking refuge in tarot and ceremonies of the religious movement Vale do Amanhecer [Valley of the Dawn], founded by the medium Tia Neiva in Brasília. In Gitirana (1975), a boy transforms into a woman following his grandmother's death, with his godfather's blessing. As Ciça, Maria Bonita or Marieta Puribão, he/she sets out in search of the lost kingdom of Miramar, to escape the worker's destiny. “Free us from sin, pestilence, hunger, drought, flood and money”, she says, embodying a blessed revolutionary.

In the shade of a tree, Father Ricardo Rezende celebrates the Igreja dos oprimidos (1985), and interprets the Bible as a guerrilla manual. Rezende calls for peace in Nicaragua, “a country that lives under the threat of invasion from the United States”, and in South Africa, “where black people have been trampled on by a white minority”. A rural worker pays homage to “our Indians, the true owners of this land, who fell under the yoke of oppressors and capitalists”. Rather than just narrating their stories, the microphone amplifies the voices of the workers accused of subversion and terrorism. The film records the historical moment in which the Catholic Church distanced itself from its initial support for the dictatorship and joined the ranks of resistance, thanks to Liberation Theology.

In Terceiro milênio (1980), however, the rare images of brother José da Cruz reveal the evangelization of the Ticuna people through popular Catholicism that attempted to erase traditional spirituality and turn indigenous peoples into a workforce. In Iracema (1974), the popular devotion to the Christian religious celebration Círio de Nazaré, in Belém, also serves as a rite of passage for the young indigenous character into the decay of capitalist society. Spirituality and religion form inseparable bases for community alliances, which is why they remain crucial in navigating contemporary Brazil.

4: What is progress?

What is progress?

The dictatorship sold an economic miracle and delivered environmental destruction, the violation of rights and corruption. During the regime’s most violent years Bodanzky used fiction, histrionic acting and historical analogies to deal with inflamed conflicts. “Nature ain’t a mother at all. Nature is my truck, kid, nature is the road”, brags Tião Brasil Grande in Iracema (1974). His prejudiced arrogance still echoes throughout the country.

Every kilometer of the Transamazonian promoted by the government opened up a fresh wound of violence and destruction. Bodanzky documented a country in conflict and sent overseas some of the first color images of the Amazon in flames.

In 1978, at the invitation of a Congressional Investigative Commission (CPI), he visited the Jari Project, a business run by American Daniel Ludwig, which deforested swathes of the Amazon rainforest to produce cellulose, rice and kaolin. The documentary Jari (1979) was innovative in juxtaposing the official discourse of the factory administration with the voices of the workers, exposing the unhealthy relationship between private investment and the government of general Ernesto Geisel.

In Bodanzky’s cinema the camera films and directs the action while the sound weaves into the storyline, providing point and counterpoint. “The Indian is a true ecologist. A man who feels the complexity, harmony and integration of the forest, deeply”, declares environmentalist José Antonio Lutzenberger. Bodanzky’s cinema provided a counter narrative to the official discourse, which even co-opted newspapers and magazines.

The invitation to film the CPI trip was made by Amazonian senator Evandro Carreira, who went on to feature in his own documentary. Terceiro milênio (1980) followed Carreira’s journey along the Solimões River as he campaigned for state government. “What is progress?” he provokes. Prejudiced and at the same time visionary, Carreira synthesizes paradoxes of the time and anticipates current dilemmas: “Either you will invent me, or you will investigate me, or decipher me, man of the third millennium, or I will devour you with devastation, with desert, and the hell that will be the future Amazônia”, he concludes.


By Ângelo Manjabosco, Mariana Baumgaertner, Thyago Nogueira



Jorge Bodanzky is born in São Paulo (São Paulo), the son of Austrians who came to Brazil in 1937 on the eve of the annexation of the German Reich. He attends the Instituto Mackenzie, Colégio Bandeirantes and Colégio Piratininga in São Paulo. Spends months at an anarchist boarding school in Rekawinkel, Austria. On return to São Paulo he creates the Sambalelê puppet theatre company with friends.

In 1960 president Juscelino Kubitschek inaugurates Brasília as the new capital. In 1961 Jânio Quadros is elected president and steps down a few months later. Vice president João Goulart assumes the presidency and promises fundamental social reforms.



Bodanzky takes the course in architecture at the newly opened University of Brasília, encouraged by the innovative pedagogical approach. Takes classes with the artists Amelia Toledo, Athos Bulcão and Luis Humberto, among others.

In 1964, a civil-military coup deposes the president João Goulart with support from the United States. Marshal Humberto Castelo Branco assumes the presidency of Brazil. The UnB campus is invaded by the military, who arrest teachers and students. The dictatorship suspends political rights and begins persecuting opponents.



Participates in the filming of Menino de engenho (1965), by Walter Lima Jr., in Paraíba.

The military advances on universities. Bodanzky leaves UnB after the departure of more than 200 teachers and assistants who had signed a collective resignation letter. He exhibits photographs at the 8th São Paulo Biennial. From 1965 to 1969, he works as a photographer for Manchete magazine, the newspapers O Estado de S. Paulo and Jornal da Tarde, Realidade magazine and the Maitiry agency, at the invitation of Portuguese artist Fernando Lemos.



Travels to Cologne, Germany, in 1966 to study photography, but drops out of the technical course. Filmmaker Alexander Kluge invites him to study cinema at the newly created Design School in Ulm, Germany. In 1967, he travels to Berlin with a group from the student movement to record the documentary Distúrbio [Disorder], about the murder of student Benno Ohnesorg during a protest against the Shah of Iran’s visit. The pressure on the political activities of students at the Ulm School of Design leads to an exodus of students. Bodanzky returns to Brazil.

In 1967, Marshal Artur da Costa e Silva takes on the presidency of Brazil. The National Indian Foundation (Funai) replaces the Indian Protection Service (SNI), involved in corruption allegations.



Bodanzky exhibits photographs at Galeria Astreia, in São Paulo, alongside artist Fernando Lemos and others. He travels to the Amazon for the first time to report for Realidade magazine on the circulation of counterfeit money in Paragominas (Pará). The movement of truck drivers and prostitutes at a gas station will form the embryo of his first feature film, Iracema: uma transa amazônica (1974). The Amazon becomes the epicenter of his work.

He directs photography on Hitler IIIº mundo (Hitler in the Third World, 1968) and Rito do amor selvagem (Rite of Wild Love, 1969), by José Agrippino de Paula; O profeta da fome (The Prophet of Hunger, 1969), by Maurice Capovilla; and Compasso de espera (Waiting Time, 1969), by Antunes Filho, among others.

Student Edson Luís de Lima Souto is murdered by military police in Rio de Janeiro, sparking protests that culminate in the Hundred Thousand March. President Costa e Silva formalizes the authoritarian regime with the creation of the Institutional Act No.5, signaling the beginning of the “Anos de Chumbo” [Lead Years]. The National Congress is closed, political rights are revoked, censorship and torture become state policy.



A military junta assumes the presidency of Brazil and promulgates a new Constitution, reinforcing the regime. The National Congress elects General Emílio Garrastazu Médici to the presidency. Médici launches the National Integration Program (1970) designed to occupy the Amazon with highways, mineral extraction and settlers from across the country. The plan ignores indigenous populations. Construction begins on the Transamazonian Highway (BR-230), which has never been completed. Carlos Marighella, leader of the National Liberation Alliance, is killed by state agents. The Brazilian football team wins the World Cup. The Information Operation Detachments program (DOI) is created to control activities and pursue opponents. The DOI-CODI become centers for torture carried out by state agents.

Bodanzky works for Realidade magazine and teaches photography and film camerawork classes at the School of Communications and Arts, at the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP).



He directs his first film, Caminhos de Valderez (Paths of Valderez, 1971), in partnership with Hermano Penna. The protagonist Valderez de Almeida makes her film debut alongside non-professional actors. The film goes missing for years. Once his main activity, photography now takes its place alongside cinema.

With reporter Karl Brugger, he develops reports for German television about censorship in the arts; the arrest of the theater group The Living Theater, in Minas Gerais; religiosity in Brasília; community associations under Salvador Allende’s government in Chile; and conducts interviews with General Hugo Banzer Suárez a month after he takes over the government of Bolivia in a coup d'état. He creates the production company Stopfilm with his partner Wolf Gauer in Munich.

Carlos Lamarca, leader of the armed resistance against the dictatorship, is murdered in Bahia.



In 1972, he travels to Manaus with Brugger and the mysterious Tatunca Nara in search of the lost city of Akakor, a legend proven to be myth years later. With Wolf Gauer, he films documentaries for the Institute of Film and Image for Science and Education in Germany. He shares camera duties with José Medeiros on O fabuloso Fittipaldi (The Amazing Fittipaldi, 1973), by Héctor Babenco and Roberto Farias. He invests in super-8 production to expand on the cinematographic language. Teaches cinema at Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP), in São Paulo, from 1972 to 1976.

He obtains funding from the German TV channel ZDF for his first feature film, Iracema: uma transa amazônica (1974), filmed along the Transamazonian Highway. He meets Edna de Cássia at an auditorium program in Belém, who goes on to star in the film with no prior acting experience.

In 1973, Chilean president Salvador Allende is deposed in a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet, head of the Armed Forces. In Brazil, Médici ratifies the Indian Statute to rule out accusations of genocide against indigenous populations. In 1974, General Ernesto Geisel assumes the presidency of Brazil. Between 1972 and 1974, the Army discover and destroy the training base of the Communist Party of Brazil in Araguaia and cover up the massacre.



The film Iracema: uma transa amazônica (1974), co-directed with Orlando Senna, premieres on German television ZDF and attracts international attention, but is censored in Brazil. A German government agency purchases 100 copies of the film to distribute in schools.

This success paves the way for the feature film Gitirana, co-directed with Orlando Senna and based on the play Teatro de cordel (Cordel Theater, 1970). Gitirana recounts the impact of the construction of the Sobradinho dam (Bahia), a project developed by the Médici government that displaced 70,000 people and created the largest artificial lake in the country. The film is shown on German TV, but banned on the Brazilian commercial circuit, distributed in private film clubs.

Bodanzky receives journalist Vladimir Herzog at home to process photographs of his father in an improvised laboratory. Herzog is arrested, tortured and murdered days later at DOI-CODI in São Paulo. His death mobilizes the first major civil society protest following the creation of AI- nº5, at Sé cathedral in São Paulo.



Iracema and Gitirana are celebrated at the Cannes Film Festival, France. Bodanzky creates the Stop Som studio, in São Paulo, with Wolf Gauer and Raquel Gerber. He films the fiction feature Os Mucker (1978), based on the Mucker Revolt (1873-1874), a true episode of armed conflict between the military and the religious community of Sapiranga (Rio Grande do Sul).

The Unified Black Movement (MNU) is created in 1978. President Ernesto Geisel repeals Institutional Act nº 5, signaling a partial political relaxation.

In 1979, he travels to Pará with the CPI which will investigate the controversial Jari Project, run by businessman Daniel Ludwig. The documentary Jari (1979), co-directed with Wolf Gauer, documents the voices of workers and openly criticizes the project. The film circulates in dozens of associations and film clubs. Os Mucker (1978) receives the Best Direction award at the Gramado Film Festival. He moves to Rio de Janeiro, where he lives until returning to São Paulo in 2005.

In 1979, General João Figueiredo becomes president of Brazil, which has 800 political prisoners and 7 thousand citizens in exile. Under public pressure, Figueiredo signs the Amnesty Law, which pardons political crimes. The law is criticized for serving as a means to excuse state torture and repression. The National Congress puts an end to bipartisanship.



From 1980 to 1984, Bodanzky co-directs reports with Karl Brugger for the German channel ARD. Iracema (1974) is cleared to be shown at the Brasília Festival and receives the awards for Best Film, Actress, Supporting Actress (Conceição Senna) and Editing, after six years of censorship. Releases Terceiro milênio (Third Millennium), co-directed by Wolf Gauer, a river movie that follows the electoral campaign of senator Evandro Carreira (Amazonas) on the Solimões River, in the territory of the Ticuna people.

Iracema (1974) is approved by the Federal Police for general viewing in 1981. He directs Amazônia, o último Eldorado (Amazonia, the Last Eldorado, 1982), for the TV program Globo Repórter with journalist Carlos Alberto Luppi. Terceiro milênio (1980) is shown in a parallel exhibition at the Cannes Festival, where it receives the Jeune Cinéma award. In 1983, the Paris Cinematheque organizes a retrospective of Bodanzky's cinema, endorsed by filmmaker Jean Rouch, one of the creators of direct cinema.

The first direct election for governor is held since the beginning of the military dictatorship in 1982. The following year, the “Diretas Já” movement is formed with the aim of resuming direct presidential elections.



Between 1984 and 2006, he works with Gernot Schley for German television. He releases the documentary Igreja dos oprimidos (Church of the Oppressed, 1985, co-directed by Helena Salem) about the Catholic Church’s involvement in the struggle for land reform in Araguaia (PA).

Tancredo Neves is elected president of Brazil by the electoral college, but dies before taking office. The inauguration of Vice President José Sarney marks the end of the military regime. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger imposes an order of silence on Friar Leonardo Boff for spreading the ideas of Liberation Theology.

Releases the film Ensaiando Brecht (Rehearsing Brecht, 1986). Gives classes in cinema and video at the State University of Campinas. Igreja dos oprimidos receives the Margarida de Prata prize, offered by National Confederation of Bishops of Brazil (CNBB). Films Igor, uma aventura na Antártica (Igor, an Adventure in Antarctica, 1987) and organizes an expedition to the Pico da Neblina to find the place described in the short story “The Lost World” by Arthur Conan Doyle. Films the documentary O sonho de um pedaço de terra próprio (The Dream of Your Own Piece of Land, 1987), with Gernot Schley about the landless people’s movement in Rio Grande do Sul.



The new Brazilian Constitution is ratified, expanding citizens' rights.

Releases the film Universidade Quadrangular (Foursquare University, 1988). Teaches at the Center for Cultural and Educational Production at the University of Brasília. Releases A propósito de Tristes trópicos (On Tristes Tropiques, 1990, co-directed by Patrick Menget and Jean-Pierre Beaurenaut), about the work of anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. In 1991, he produces reports such as Surfista de trem (Train Surfer, Canal Plus), Flor do amanhã (Flower of Tomorrow), about the children's samba school run by carnival artist Joãozinho Trinta, and Caça à baleia branca (White Whale Hunting).

Coordinates the Ecovídeo series (1995), comprising 10 educational programs made for children from the Amazon, with the participation of the Federal University of Pará. Launches the Amazonlife portal (1998), an online encyclopedia about the Amazon, online until 2001.



First trip of the Navegar Amazônia (Navigate Amazonia) project (2000), an initiative aimed at taking the internet to riverside schools in Amapá by boat. Releases Brasília, a utopia inacabada (Brasília, the Unfinished Utopia, 2002), the film Navegaramazônia: uma viagem com Jorge Mautner (Navigate Amazonia: A Journey with Jorge Mautner, 2005) and the special Era uma vez Iracema (Once upon a Time Iracema, 2005). Publishes the biographical testimony Jorge Bodanzky: o homem com a câmera (Jorge Bodanzky: The Man with the Camera, 2006), written by Carlos Alberto Mattos. Releases the films No meio do rio, entre as árvores (In the Middle of the River, Among the Trees, 2009) and Pandemonium (2010). Returns to Alto Solimões in 2009 to interview the Ticuna, filmed in Terceiro milênio (1980).

In 2012, President Dilma Rousseff establishes the National Truth Commission to investigate human rights violations committed by the Brazilian state between 1946 and 1988. The commission's final report calls for a review of the Amnesty Law.



Bodanzky’s collection of photos, super-8 and videos is acquired and preserved by the Instituto Moreira Salles. Releases Família (Family, 2014) and Photo Assis, o clique único de Assis Horta (Photo Assis, the Unique Click of Assis Horta, 2015), at the invitation of ZUM magazine. In 2016, he presents his work from the exhibition No meio do rio, entre as árvores (MIS-SP). Releases a DVD of Iracema which includes the special Ainda uma vez Iracema (Once Again Iracema, 2016), in which he returns to Belém to debate prostitution.



He directs the series Transamazônica, uma estrada para o passado (Transamazonian, a Highway to the Past, HBO, 2019, co-directed by Fabiano Maciel) and Ruivaldo, o homem que salvou a Terra (Ruivaldo, The Man who Saved the Earth, 2019), with João Farkas. Releases Utopia/distopia (Utopia/Dystopia, 2020) and Amazônia, a nova Minamata? (Amazon, the New Minamata?, 2022).

In 2018, Jair Bolsonaro is elected president of Brazil and denies the 1964 military coup, in addition to minimizing the violence of the military dictatorship. In 2022, Lula is elected president of Brazil and creates the Ministry of Indigenous Peoples, led by Sônia Guajajara. Joenia Wapichana is the first indigenous person to head FUNAI.